- When was it decided there should be four gospels?
- Were gospels removed from the Bible?
- What makes the 4 Gospels Different?
- Is there any evidence for the reliability of the four gospels?
- Are the 'other' gospels historical?
- Early Witnesses to the Four-Gospel Collection
- Primary source materials on Gospels
The Four Gospels and the Other Gospels... Is our Canon Right?
Introduction: Listen to 'The Four Gospels and the Other Gospels' by Professor Richard Bauckham
When was it decided that there would be just four gospels?
In the classic conspiracy books it is usually maintained that the four gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) were chosen in the fourth century. This is said because it was the fourth century when Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire and it is also in the fourth century that we get the first complete list of the 27 books of the New Testament.
However, it would be quite wrong to think that the four gospels were chosen at a time of political power hundreds of years after Christianity began. In fact there is plenty of evidence showing that during the second century, when Christians lacked political power and were being persecuted, the four gospels were accepted as a collection.
In fact, it seems likely that the authors of the other gospels (the Gospel of Thomas, the Gospel of Philip, etc.) used some of the four gospels in the Bible as sources.
Here we list a few indications that the four gospels were viewed as a collection in the second century.
1. In Dublin there is a copy of the four gospels from around AD 225.
2. In Rome there is a copy of Luke followed by John from around AD 225. The fact that manuscripts found in different places bring these gospels together shows that this was probably occurring considerably earlier than AD 225.
3. Writing around the year AD 185, Irenaeus bishop of Lyons, spoke of the four canonical gospels, of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.
4. Theophilus of Antioch (second century) probably treated all four gospels as a collection (pp.117-118).
5. Tatian made a harmony (continuous narrative) of the four gospels, probably around the year AD 172.
6. Ammonius of Alexandria (who may have been from the second century) made a harmony of the four gospels.
7. According to Dr Darrell Hannah (Oxford University) the Epistula Apostolorum, written before AD 150 uses all four gospels.
8. Heracleon the gnostic writing around AD 170 expounds Luke and John as scripture.
9. Papias writing around AD 130 accepts the gospels of Matthew, Mark, and John. According to Armenian manuscripts he also accepted Luke. If so, he is probably the earliest person known to have accepted all four gospels.
Summary: It is hard to maintain that the decision to have four gospels was made in the fourth century. If Papias' evidence is reliable, people were treating the four gospels as authoritative within one generation of the writing of the last of the four gospels (probably John).
Details: It should be noted that strictly speaking these different pieces of evidence show different things. The evidence of Irenaeus or Tatian shows that the four gospels and only the four gospels were in a particular category. This is probably the case for Papias, but this is not so clear. The evidence of the Epistula Apostolorum is less clear as it depends upon the interpretation of some minor details.
Jesus and the Eyewitnesses
By Richard Bauckham
This new book argues that the four Gospels are closely based on eyewitness testimony of those who knew Jesus.
The Gospel of Judas
by Simon Gathercole
`Judas' is synonymous with `traitor'. But a newly-discovered ancient text of the Gospel of Judas offers a picture of Judas Iscariot radically different from the Church's traditional understanding of him, and maintains that far from being the infamous betrayer, Judas was actually Jesus' trusted friend and the recipient of secret revelation. Simon Gathercole's new book includes a translation of the ancient Egyptian text of the Gospel of Judas and a running commentary, and offers new translations of all the ancient evidence about Judas Iscariot and the Gospel attributed to him... more
The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ
by Martin Hengel
How could the word, 'gospel', be used both by Paul for a proclamation which seems to include no narrative about the earthly Jesus, and by the author of the Gospel according to Mark and his successors, as a title works, which adopt an essentially narrative form? Why did the church, in forming its canon of scripture, choose to include four different and sometimes contradictory accounts of the life of Jesus, when others, like Tatian and Marcion, opted for a harmony, for one account? more